生命期營養(Nutrition through the life cycle, 5e
目次

第1章  基礎營養學Nutrition Basics /蕭寧馨 譯 1
前言Introduction 2
營養學原理Principles of the Science of Nutrition 2
必需營養素和非必需營養素Essential and Nonessential Nutrients 3
膳食營養標準 Dietary Intake Standards 3
碳水化合物Carbohydrates 4
蛋白質Protein 6
油脂(脂質)Fats (Lipids) 8
維生素Vitamins 10
食物中的其它物質Other Substances in Food 13
礦物質Minerals 13
水分Water 22
營養標示Nutritional Labeling 34
營養標示表Nutrition Facts Panel 35
原料標示Ingredient Label 35
膳食補充品標示Dietary Supplement Labeling 35
草藥療法Herbal Remedies 36
機能食品Functional Foods 36
生命全程的營養與健康策略The Life-Course Approach to Nutrition and Health 37
生命期的營養需求Meeting Nutritional Needs Across the Life Cycle 37
飲食的民俗特性Dietary Considerations Based on Ethnicity 38
飲食的宗教特性Dietary Considerations Based on Religion 38
營養評估Nutritional Assessment 38
社區營養評估Community-Level Nutritional Assessment 38
個人營養評估Individual-Level Nutritional Assessment 39
飲食評估Dietary Assessment 39
人體測量評估Anthropometric Assessment 40
生化評估Biochemical Assessment 41
監測國民營養狀況Monitoring the Nation's Nutritional Health  42
公共食物與營養計畫Public Food and Nutrition Programs 42
婦嬰兒童特別營養補充計畫WIC 43
改善國民營養的當務之急Nationwide Priorities for Improvements in Nutritional Health 43
美國營養與健康指引U.S. Nutrition and Health Guidelines 43
美國人飲食指引Dietary Guidelines for Americans 44
我的餐盤MyPlate.gov 45
美國農業部的食物分類The USDA's Food Groups 46

第2章  孕前營養Preconception Nutrition /蕭寧馨 譯 50
前言Introduction 51
孕前概觀Preconception Overview 51
與孕前階段有關的2020國民營養目標2020 Nutrition Objectives for the Nation Related to the Preconceptional Period 51
生殖生理學Reproductive Physiology 52
女性生殖系統Female Reproductive System 52
男性生殖系統Male Reproductive System 55
營養與生育力Nutrition and Fertility 56
營養不足與生育能力Undernutrition and Fertility 56
體脂肪與生育力Body Fat and Fertility 57
營養狀況與生育力Nutrient Status and Fertility 58
臨孕期營養Nutrition During the Periconceptional Period 61
臨孕期的葉酸營養狀況Periconceptional Folate Status 61
臨孕期的鐵營養狀況Periconceptional Iron Status 63
孕前婦女的膳食建議Recommended Dietary Intake for Preconceptional Women 63
避孕劑對孕前營養狀況的影響Influence of Contraceptives on Preconceptional Nutrition Status 64
荷爾蒙避孕劑的營養相關副作用Nutritional Side Effects of Hormonal Contraception 64
孕前健康與營養示範計畫Model Preconceptional Health and Nutrition Programs 64
WIC的孕前營養補助Preconceptional Benefits of WIC 65
降低印尼婦女孕前缺鐵狀況Decreasing Iron Deficiency in Preconceptional Women in Indonesia 65
孕前照護:準備懷孕Preconception Care: Preparing for Pregnancy 65
營養照護程序The Nutrition Care Process 65
孕前營養照護程序The Nutrition Care Process Related to the Preconception Period 67

第3章  孕前營養:狀況與處置Preconception Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions /蕭寧馨 譯 70
前言Introduction 71
經前症候群Premenstrual Syndrome 71
PMS的治療Treatment of PMS 71
體重與生育力Weight Status and Fertility 72
肥胖、體脂肪分布以及生育力Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, and Fertility 72
男性體重與生育力Weight Status and Fertility in Men 73
女性體重與生育力Weight Status and Fertility in Women 73
能量負平衡和生育力Negative Energy Balance and Fertility 75
厭食症、暴食症與生育力Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Fertility 75
女運動員三聯症和生育力The Female Athlete Triad and Fertility 75
懷孕前的糖尿病Diabetes Prior to Pregnancy 76
懷孕前糖尿病的營養療法Nutritional Management of Diabetes Prior to Pregnancy 76
多囊性卵巢症候群和生育力Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Fertility 78
PCOS的營養療法Nutritional Management of PCOS 79
苯酮尿症Phenylketonuria, PKU 80
母親PKU Maternal PKU 80
PKU的營養療法Nutritional Management of PKU 81
麩質不耐症Celiac Disease 81
麩質不耐症的營養管理Nutrition Management of Celiac Disease 81

第4章  懷孕期營養Nutrition During Pregnancy /蕭寧馨 譯 87
前言Introduction 88
懷孕成果The Status of Pregnancy Outcomes 88
嬰兒死亡率Infant Mortality 88
低出生體重、早產和嬰兒死亡率Low Birthweight, Preterm Delivery, and Infant Mortality 90
降低嬰兒死亡率與發病率Reducing Infant Mortality and Morbidity 90
懷孕生理學Physiology of Pregnancy 91
母體生理學Maternal Physiology 91
懷孕期間的正常生理變化Normal Physiological Changes During Pregnancy 92
胎盤The Placenta 95
胚胎與胎兒的生長和發育Embryonic and Fetal Growth and Development 97
生長與發育的關鍵期Critical Periods of Growth and Development 97
胎兒的身體組成Fetal Body Composition 99
營養、流產與早產Nutrition, Miscarriages, and Preterm Delivery 102
成年疾病風險之發育編程Developmental Programming of Later Disease Risk 103
懷孕期增重Pregnancy Weight Gain 104
懷孕期的增重建議Pregnancy Weight Gain Recommendations 105
營養與懷孕過程和成果Nutrition and the Course and Outcome of Pregnancy 108
飢荒與懷孕成果Famine and Pregnancy Outcome 108
懷孕期間的能量和營養需求Energy and Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy 109
能量的需求The Need for Energy 110
蛋白質的需求The Need for Protein 111
脂肪的需求The Need for Fat 111
懷孕期間維生素和礦物質的需求The Need for Vitamins and Minerals During Pregnancy 113
鈣Calcium 117
食物中的生物活性成分Bioactive Components of Food 121
水分的需求The Need for Water 122
影響懷孕期間膳食攝取量的因素Factors Affecting Dietary Intake During Pregnancy 122
懷孕期間飲食口味改變的影響Effect of Taste and Smell Changes on Dietary Intake During Pregnancy 122
文化差異Cultural Considerations 123
孕期的健康飲食Healthful Diets for Pregnancy 123
懷孕期的素食Vegetarian Diets in Pregnancy 124
懷孕期的膳食補充品Dietary Supplements During Pregnancy 127
產前維生素和礦物質補充劑Multivitamin and Mineral Prenatal Supplementation 127
懷孕期間的食品安全Food Safety Issues during Pregnancy 130
水銀污染Mercury Contamination 130
評估懷孕期間的營養狀況Assessment Nutritional Status During Pregnancy 130
懷孕期的飲食評估Assessment of Dietary Intake during Pregnancy 130
營養生化指標評估Nutrition Biomarker Assessment 131
運動與懷孕成果Exercise and Pregnancy Outcome 131
孕婦的運動建議Exercise Recommendations for Pregnant Women 132
懷孕期間常見的健康問題Common Health Problems During Pregnancy 132
反胃與嘔吐Nausea and Vomiting 132
心灼痛Heartburn 133
便秘Constipation 133
懷孕期間降低風險的營養示範計畫Model Nutrition Programs for Risk Reduction in Pregnancy 133
加拿大蒙特婁膳食服務診所The Montreal Diet Dispensary 133
美國婦嬰兒童特別營養補充計畫The WIC Program 134

第5章  懷孕期營養:狀況與處置Nutrition During Pregnancy: Conditions and Interventions /葉松鈴 譯 138
前言Introduction 139
肥胖與懷孕Obesity and Pregnancy 139
肥胖與嬰兒出生結果Obesity and Infant Outcomes 139
孕期高血壓Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy 141
孕期高血壓、氧化壓力與營養Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Oxidative Stress, and Nutrition 141
慢性高血壓Chronic Hypertension 141
妊娠高血壓Gestational Hypertension 142
子癇前症-子癇症Preeclampsia-Eclampsia 142
對子癇前症的營養建議及介入Nutritional Recommendations and Interventions for Preeclampsia 145
懷孕期的糖尿病Diabetes in Pregnancy 145
妊娠期糖尿病Gestational Diabetes 145
懷孕期第二型糖尿病Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy 150
懷孕期第一型糖尿病Type I Diabetes During Pregnancy 150
懷孕期第一型糖尿病的營養處置Nutritional Management of Type I Diabetes in Pregnancy 151
多胞胎Multifetal Pregnancies 151
有關多胞胎的背景知識Background Information about Multiple Fetuses 152
多胞胎懷孕的相關風險Risks Associated with Multifetal Pregnancy 153
營養與多胞胎懷孕結果Nutrition and the Outcome of Multifetal Pregnancy 154
雙胞胎懷孕的飲食攝取Dietary Intake in Twin Pregnancy 155
多胞胎孕婦的營養建議Nutritional Recommendations for Women with Multifetal Pregnancy 156
懷孕期HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS During Pregnancy 157
懷孕期感染HIV/AIDS的結果Consequences of HIV/AIDS During Pregnancy 158
營養因子及懷孕期感染HIV/AIDS Nutritional Factors and HIV/AIDS During Pregnancy 158
感染HIV/AIDS孕婦的營養處置Nutritional Management of Women with HIV/AIDS During Pregnancy 158
懷孕期間的飲食失調Eating Disorders in Pregnancy 159
懷孕期飲食失調的結果Consequences of Eating Disorders in Pregnancy 159
孕期飲食失調之治療Treatment of Women with Eating Disorders During Pregnancy 159
營養介入飲食失調婦女Nutritional Interventions for Women with Eating Disorders 159
胎兒酒精相關異常Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 159
營養與青少女懷孕Nutrition and Adolescent Pregnancy 161
青少女懷孕期間的生長Growth During Adolescent Pregnancy 161
肥胖及增重過多與青少女懷孕Obesity, Excess Weight Gain, and Adolescent Pregnancy 161
懷孕青少女的營養建議Nutritional Recommendations for Pregnant Adolescents 161
實證基礎的處置Evidence-Based Practice 162

第6章  哺乳期營養Nutrition During Lactation /葉松鈴 譯 164
前言Introduction 165
哺乳生理學Lactation Physiology 165
乳腺的功能性單位Functional Units of the Mammary Gland 165
乳腺的發育Mammary Gland Development 165
產乳作用Lactogenesis 165
荷爾蒙控制泌乳Hormonal Control of Lactation 166
乳汁的分泌Secretion of Milk 167
溢乳反射The Letdown Reflex 167
母乳之組成份Human Milk Composition 168
初乳Colostrum 168
水Water 168
能量Energy 168
脂肪Lipids 168
蛋白質Protein 170
乳汁碳水化合物Milk Carbohydrates 170
脂溶性維生素Fat-Soluble vitamins 170
水溶性維生素Water-Soluble Vitamins 171
母乳中的礦物質Minerals in Human Milk 171
母乳的滋味Taste of Human Milk 172
母乳哺餵的好處Benefits of Breastfeeding 172
哺乳對母親的好處Breastfeeding Benefits for Mothers 172
母乳哺餵對嬰兒的好處Breastfeeding Benefits for Infants 172
優點Benefits 174
母乳的供應及需求Breast Milk Supply and Demand 174
婦女可以產出足夠的乳汁嗎?Can Women Make Enough Milk? 175
乳房大小會限制婦女哺餵嬰兒的能力嗎?Does the Size of the Breast Limit a Woman's Ability to Nurse Her Infant? 175
哺餵頻率與婦女產乳量有關嗎?Is Feeding Frequency Related to the Amount of Milk a Woman Can Make? 175
抽取或擠出乳汁Pumping or Expressing Milk 175
縮乳或隆乳手術之後是否可以哺乳?Can Women Breastfeed after Breast Reduction or Augmentation Surgery? 175
乳房的矽膠植入物對哺乳有什麼影響?What Is the Effect of Silicone Breast Implants on Breastfeeding? 176
母乳哺餵程序The Breastfeeding Process 176
乳房為哺乳做準備Preparing the Breast for Breastfeeding 176
母乳哺餵的姿勢Breastfeeding Positioning 176
將乳房轉向吸吮的嬰兒Presenting the Breast to the Suckling Infant 177
母乳哺餵的嬰兒The Breastfeeding Infant 177
嬰兒反射作用Infant Reflexes 177
哺乳的機制Mechanics of Breastfeeding 178
判斷飢餓和滿足Identifying Hunger and Satiety 178
哺餵頻率Feeding Frequency 178
確定母乳哺餵之營養不良Identifying Breastfeeding Malnutrition 178
齲齒Tooth Decay 181
母乳哺餵嬰兒的維生素補充劑Vitamin Supplements for Breastfeeding Infants 181
母親的飲食Maternal Diet 181
哺乳婦女的營養評估Nutrition Assessment of Breastfeeding Women 181
熱量和營養素的需求Energy and Nutrient Needs 181
母親的能量平衡及乳汁組成Maternal Energy Balance and Milk Composition 182
母乳哺餵期間的減重Weight Loss During Breastfeeding 182
運動和母乳哺餵Exercise and Breastfeeding 183
維生素和礦物質補充劑Vitamin and Mineral Supplements 183
維生素和礦物質攝取Vitamin and Mineral Intakes 183
機能性食品Functional Foods 183
液體Fluids 184
另類飲食Alternative Diets 184
嬰兒腹絞痛Infant Colic 184
公眾食品營養計畫Public Food and Nutrition Programs 184
美國農部WIC計畫USDA WIC Program 184
最佳哺餵期間、影響因素和美國母乳哺餵的目標Optimal Duration, Influential Factors, and U.S. Goals for Breastfeeding 185
最佳哺餵期間Optimal Breastfeeding Duration 185
影響母乳哺餵開始和持續的因素Factors Influencing Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration 185
美國的母乳哺餵目標Breastfeeding Goals for the United States 186
母乳哺餵的提升,促進和支持Breastfeeding Promotion, Facilitation, and Support 187
醫療保健系統在支持母乳哺餵中扮演的角色Role of the Health Care System in Supporting Breastfeeding 187
產前母乳哺餵的教育和支持Prenatal Breastfeeding Education and Support 188
醫院和生產中心對哺乳的支持Lactation Support in Hospitals and Birthing Centers 189
出院後之哺乳支持Lactation Support after Discharge 191
工作場所The Workplace 191
社區The Community 192
國家母乳哺育政策National Breastfeeding Policy 193
促進母乳哺餵的示範計畫Model Breastfeeding Promotion Programs 193
WIC國家母乳哺餵促進計畫-關愛支持使母乳哺餵成功WIC National Breastfeeding Promotion Project—Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work 193
企業支持哺乳The Business Case for Breastfeeding 194
國際兒童醫療專業照護組織Wellstart International 194

第7章  哺乳期營養:狀況與處置Nutrition During Lactation: Conditions and Interventions /葉松鈴 譯 197
前言Introduction 198
母乳哺餵時常發生的情況Common Breastfeeding Conditions 198
乳頭疼痛Sore Nipples 198
乳頭扁平或凹陷Flat or Inverted Nipples 198
溢乳失敗Letdown Failure 198
溢乳亢進Hyperactive Letdown 199
泌乳過多Hyperlactation 199
漲奶Engorgement 199
輸乳管阻塞Plugged Duct 199
乳腺炎Mastitis 200
低乳汁供應量Low Milk Supply 200
母親服用的藥物Maternal Medications 202
草藥治療Herbal Remedies 204
美國常用的草藥Specific Herbs Used in the United States 206
牛奶薊/祝福薊Milk Thistle/Blessed Thistle 207
酒精以及其他藥物Alcohol and Other Drugs and Exposures 207
酒精Alcohol 207
尼古丁(抽菸)Nicotine (Smoking Cigarettes) 209
大麻Marijuana 209
咖啡因Caffeine 210
其他藥物的濫用Other Drugs of Abuse 210
環境暴露Environmental Exposures 210
新生兒黃疸及核黃疸Neonatal Jaundice and Kernicterus 211
膽紅素代謝Bilirubin Metabolism 212
生理性與病理性新生兒黃疸Physiologic Versus Pathologic Newborn Jaundice 212
高膽紅素血症和母乳哺餵 Hyperbilirubinemia and Breastfeeding 213
嚴重黃疸的預防和治療Prevention and Treatment for Severe Jaundice 215
給父母的訊息Information for Parents 215
多胞胎之母乳哺餵Breastfeeding Multiples 215
嬰兒過敏Infant Allergies 216
食物過敏(過度敏感)Food Allergy (Hypersensitivity) 217
食物耐受不良Food Intolerance 217
晚期早產嬰兒Late-Preterm Infants 217
母乳和早產兒Human Milk and Preterm Infants 219
母乳哺餵的醫療性禁忌Medical Contraindications to Breastfeeding 220
母乳哺餵和人類免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染Breastfeeding and HIV Infection 220
母乳的收集和貯存Human Milk Collection and Storage 221
母乳庫Milk Banking 221
示範計畫Model Programs 222
醫生執業場所哺乳促進計畫Breastfeeding Promotion in Physicians' Office Practices (BPPOP) 222
魯希母乳會The Rush Mothers' Milk Club 223

第8章  嬰兒期營養Infant Nutrition /林義福 譯 226
前言Introduction 227
新生兒健康評估Assessing Newborn Health 227
出生體重做指標Birthweight as an Outcome 227
嬰兒死亡Infant Mortality 227
克服嬰兒死亡Combating Infant Mortality 228
標準新生兒生長評估Standard Newborn Growth Assessment 228
嬰兒發育Infant Development 228
動作發展Motor Development 228
關鍵期Critical Periods 229
認知發展Cognitive Development 229
消化系統之發育Digestive System Development 230
為人父母Parenting 231
能量及營養需要Energy and Nutrient Needs 232
能量需求Energy Needs 232
蛋白質需求Protein Needs 232
脂肪Fats 232
代謝速率、能量、脂肪及蛋白質-彼此如何合作無間?Metabolic Rate, Energy, Fats, and Protein—How Do They All Tie Together? 233
其他營養素及非營養素Other Nutrients and Nonnutrients 233
身體生長評估Physical Growth Assessment 234
生長資料之解讀Interpretation of Growth Data 235
嬰兒早期之餵食Feeding in Early Infancy 236
母乳與配方奶Breast Milk and Formula 236
嬰兒期用的牛奶Cow's Milk during Infancy 236
嬰兒期用大豆蛋白配方奶Soy Protein-Based Formulas During Infancy 237
嬰兒餵食技巧之進展Development of Infant Feeding Skills 238
餵食固體食物Introduction of Solid Foods 239
嬰兒餵食姿勢之重要性The Importance of Infant Feeding Position 240
用杯子喝的準備Preparing for Drinking from a Cup 241
食物質地及發展Food Texture and Development 242
第一次之食物First Foods 242
不合宜或不安全的食物選擇Inappropriate and Unsafe Food Choices 242
水Water 243
嬰兒需要多少食物才足夠?How Much Food Is Enough for Infants? 243
嬰兒如何學習喜好食物How Infants Learn Food Preferences 244
營養指南Nutrition Guidance 244
嬰兒居家環境The Infant's Home Envirenment 245
嬰兒營養補充品Supplements for Infants 245
常見營養問題及重要事項Common Nutritional Problems and Concerns 245
成長遲滯症Failure to Thrive 245
成長遲滯症之營養調理Nutrition Intervention for Failure to Thrive 246
腸絞痛Colic 246
缺鐵性貧血Iron-Deficiency Anemia 246
腹瀉及便秘Diarrhea and Constipation 247
預防奶瓶性蛀牙及耳朵感染Prevention of Baby-Bottle Caries and Ear Infections 247
食物過敏及不耐症Food Allergies and Intolerances 247
乳糖不耐症Lactose Intolerance 248
不同文化間的考量Cross-Cultural considerations 248
素食Vegetarian Diets 249
減少風險之營養介入Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction 249
示範計畫:新生兒篩檢Model Program: Newborn Screening 249

第9章  嬰兒期營養:狀況與處置Infant Nutrition:Conditions and Interventions /林義福 譯 252
前言Introduction 253
高風險嬰兒Infants at Risk 253
嬰兒需特殊健康照護之家庭Families of infants with Special Health Care Needs 254
能量及營養素需要Energy and Nutrient Needs 254
能量需要Energy Needs 254
蛋白質需要Protein Requirements 255
脂肪Fats 255
維生素及礦物質Vitamins and Minerals 256
生長Growth 256
早產兒之成長Growth in Preterm Infants 257
子宮內生長是否可預測出生後之生長?Does Intrauterine Growth Predict Growth Outside? 257
生長的解讀Interpretation of Growth 260
特殊健康照護嬰兒之營養Nutrition for Infants with Special Health Care Needs 260
發育之營養風險Nutrition Risks to Development 261
嚴重早產與營養Severe Preterm Birth and Nutrition 262
如何餵生病的嬰兒How Sick Babies Are Fed 262
早產兒要餵什麼What to Feed Preterm Infants 263
早產兒與餵食Preterm Infants and Feeding 264
先天性缺陷及慢性病嬰兒Infants with Congenital Anomalies and Chronic Illness 266
有遺傳疾病之嬰兒Infants with Genetic Disorders 266
餵食問題Feeding Problems 269
營養介入Nutrition Interventions 269
營養服務Nutrition Services 270

第10章  幼童及學齡前兒童營養Toddler and Preschooler Nutrition /林義福 譯 272
前言Introduction 273
生命週期定義Definitions of the Life-Cycle Stage 273
營養重要性Importance of Nutrition 273
追蹤幼童及學齡前兒童健康Tracking Toddler and Preschooler Health 273
美國健康國民2020 Healthy People 2020 273
正常生長及發育Normal Growth and Development 273
測量生長Measuring Growth 274
2000年CDC生長曲線圖The 2000 CDC Growth Charts 275
WHO生長標準WHO Growth Standards 276
測量及繪製生長圖的常見問題Common Problems with Measuring and Plotting Growth Data 276
生理及認知發展Physiological and Cognitive Development 276
幼童Toddlers 276
學齡前兒童Preschool-Age Children 278
性格差異Temperament Differences 281
食物偏好發展、食慾及飽滿感Food-Preference Development, Appetite, and Satiety 281
能量及營養素需要Energy and Nutrient Needs 283
能量需要Energy Needs 283
蛋白質Protein 284
維生素及礦物質Vitamins and Minerals 284
常見營養問題Common Nutrition Problems 284
缺鐵性貧血Iron-Deficiency Anemia 284
齲齒Dental Caries 285
便秘Constipation 286
血鉛含量升高Elevated Blood Lead Levels 286
糧食保障Food Security 287
食品衛生安全Food Safety 287
預防與營養有關的失調Prevention of Nutrition-Related Disorders 288
幼童及學齡前兒童過重及肥胖Overweight and Obesity in Toddlers and Preschoolers 288
過重及肥胖的評估Assessment of Overweight and Obesity 288
過重及肥胖的預防Prevention of Overweight and Obesity 288
過重及肥胖治療專家委員會推薦的治療Treatment of Overweight and Obesity Expert Committee Recommendations 289
2010美國飲食指引Dietary Guidelines for Americans  2010 290
幼童及學齡前兒童營養及心血管疾病預防Nutrition and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease  in Toddlers and Preschoolers 290
維生素及礦物質補充品Vitamin and Mineral Supplements 292
草藥補充品Herbal Supplements 292
飲食及身體活動之建議Dietary and Physical Activity Recommendations 292
2010美國飲食指引Dietary Guidelines for Americans  2010 293
美國健康餐盤MyPlate 293
鐵、纖維、脂肪及鈣推薦量Recommendations for Intake of Iron, Fiber, Fat, and Calcium 293
水分Fluids 296
食物推薦攝取量與實際攝取量Recommended vs. Actual Food Intake 296
跨文化的考量Cross-Cultural Considerations 297
素食Vegetarian Diets 297
兒童照護營養標準Child Care Nutrition Standards 298
身體活動建議Physical Activity Recommendations 298
減少風險之營養介入Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction 299
營養評估Nutrition Assessment 299
示範方案Model Program 299
公共食物及營養計畫Public Food and Nutrition Programs 299
WIC 299
WIC農民市場營養計畫WIC's Farmer's Market Nutrition Program 300
美國啟蒙及早期啟蒙計畫Head Start and Early Head Start 300
營養補充援助計畫(前美國食物券計畫)Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamp Program) 300

第11章  幼童及學齡前兒童營養:狀況與處置Toddler and Preschooler Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions /林義福 譯 302
前言Introduction 303
誰是特殊健康照護需求的兒童?Who Are Children with Special Health Care Needs? 303
慢性病幼童及學齡前兒童之營養需要Nutrition Needs of Toddlers and Preschoolers with Chronic Conditions 305
生長評估Growth Assessment 306
餵食問題Feeding Problems 307
行為性餵食問題Behavioral Feeding Problems 309
流質攝取過量Excessive Fluid Intake 309
進食問題及食品安全Feeding Problems and Food Safety 309
神經肌肉控制相關殘障之餵食問題Feeding Problems from Disabilities Involving Neuromuscular Control 309
營養相關狀況Nutrition-Related Conditions 310
成長遲滯症Failure to Thrive, FTT 310
幼童下痢及乳糜瀉Toddler Diarrhea and Celiac Disease 311
泛自閉症障礙Autism Spectrum Disorders 312
肌肉協調問題及腦性麻痺Muscle Coordination Problems and Cerebral Palsy 312
肺部問題Pulmonary Problems 313
發展遲滯及評估Developmental Delay and Evaluations 314
食物過敏與不耐症Food Allergies and Intolerance 315
膳食補充品及草藥療法Dietary Supplements and Herbal Remedies 315
營養服務資源Sources of Nutrition Services 315

第12章  兒童及少年之營養Child and Preadolescent Nutrition /林義福 譯 318
前言Introduction 319
生命期階段定義Definitions of the Life Cycle Stage 319
營養之重要性Importance of Nutrition 319
追蹤兒童及少年之健康Tracking Child and Preadolescent Health 319
美國健康國民2020 Healthy People 2020 319
正常生長及發育Normal Growth and Development 319
2000 CDC生長曲線圖The 2000 CDC Growth Charts 320
世界衛生組織成長參考WHO Growth References 321
學齡兒童之生理及認知發育Physiological and Cognitive Development of School-Age Children 321
生理發育Physiological Development 321
認知上的發育Cognitive Development 322
餵食技巧和飲食行為發育Development of Feeding Skills and Eating Behaviors 322
學齡兒童能量及營養素需要Energy and Nutrient Needs of School-Age Children 324
能量需要Energy Needs 324
蛋白質Protein 325
維生素及礦物質Vitamins and Minerals 325
常見營養問題Common Nutrition Problems 325
缺鐵Iron Deficiency 325
齲齒Dental Caries 325
學齡兒童營養相關疾病之預防Prevention of Nutrition-Related Disorders in School-Age Children 326
學齡兒童過重及肥胖Overweight and Obesity in School-Age Children 326
兒童過重和肥胖問題Addressing the Problem of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity 328
學齡兒童營養及心血管疾病的預防Nutrition and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in School-Age Children 329
膳食補充品Dietary Supplements 330
膳食建議Dietary Recommendations 331
鐵、纖維、脂肪、鈣、維生素D及水建議攝取量Recommendations for Intake of Iron, Fiber, Fat, Calcium, Vitamin D and Fluids 331
建議量對實際食物攝取量Recommended vs. Actual Food Intake 333
跨文化考量Cross-Cultural Considerations 334
素食Vegetarian Diets 334
身體活動量建議Physical Activity Recommendations 334
建議量對實際活動量Recommendations vs. Actual Activity 334
身體活動的決定因素Determinants of Physical Activity 335
團體運動Organized Sports 335
減少風險之營養介入Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction 335
營養教育Nutrition Education 336
學校營養整合Nutrition Integrity in Schools 336
營養評估Nutrition Assessment 337
示範計畫Model Programs 337
大眾食物及營養計畫Public Food and Nutrition Programs 339
國家學校午餐計畫The National School Lunch Program 339
學校早餐計畫School Breakfast Program 339
夏季食物服務計畫Summer Food Service Program 340
團隊營養Team Nutrition 340

第13章  兒童及少年之營養:狀況與處置Child and Preadolescent Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions /林義福 譯 343
前言Introduction 344
「兒童是兒童優先」是什麼意思?“Children Are Children First”–What Does that Mean? 344
有特殊健康照護需要孩子的計算Counting Children with Special Health Care Needs 344
特殊健康照護需要兒童之營養需求Nutritional Requirements of Children with Special Health Care Needs 345
能量需要Energy Needs 345
蛋白質需要Protein Needs 346
其他營養素Other Nutrients 346
生長評估Growth Assessment 346
慢性疾病兒童之生長解讀Growth Assessment and Interpretation in Children with Chronic Conditions 347
體組成及生長Body Composition and Growth 347
營養建議Nutrition Recommendations 349
滿足營養需要的方法Methods of Meeting Nutritional Requirements 350
水分Fluids 351
有特殊健康照護需要兒童之飲食及餵食問題Eating and Feeding Problems in Children with Special Health Care Needs 352
特殊疾病Specific Disorders 352
膳食補充品及草藥治療Dietary Supplements and Herbal Remedies 357
營養服務資源Sources of Nutrition Services 357
營養介入模式計畫Nutrition Intervention Model Program 359

第14章  青春期營養Adolescent Nutrition /蔡秀玲 譯 361
前言Introduction 362
在一個改變時期的營養需求Nutritional Needs in a Time of Change 362
正常身體的生長與發育Normal Physical Growth and Development 362
改變體重、身體組成和骨量Change in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass 364
正常心理發育Normal Psychosocial Development 365
青春期之健康與營養相關行為Health and Nutrition-Related Behaviors During Adolescence 366
青少年足夠的飲食攝取與需求Dietary Requirements, Intake and Adequacy Among Adolescents 369
青少年熱量與營養素需要量Energy and Nutrients Requirements of Adolescents 369
熱量Energy 369
蛋白質Protein 371
碳水化合物Carbohydrates 371
膳食纖維Dietary Fiber 371
脂肪Fat 372
鈣Calcium 372
鐵Iron 372
維生素D Vitamin D 373
葉酸Folate 374
飲食攝取與充足營養Dietary Intake and Nutritional Adequacy 374
營養篩選、評估與介入Nutrition Screening, Assessment, and Interventions 375
營養教育與諮詢Nutrition Education and Counseling 376
推廣健康飲食與運動行為Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors 381
家庭環境與父母的參與The Home Environment and Parental Involvement 381
學校計畫School Programs 381
社區參與營養支持活動Community Involvement in Nutritionally Supportive Environments 384

第15章  青春期營養:狀況與處置Adolescent Nutrition: Condition and Interventions /蔡秀玲 譯 386
前言Introduction 387
體重過重與肥胖Overweight and Obesity 387
青少年體重過重和肥胖的健康影響Health Implications of Adolescent Overweight and Obesity 388
青少年體重過重和肥胖的治療與評估Assessment and Treatment of Adolescent Overweight and Obesity 388
青少年補充劑使用Supplement Use Among Adolescents 391
維生素-礦物質補充劑Vitamin-Mineral Supplements 391
青少年使用的體能增補品Ergogenic Supplements Used by Teens 391
青少年運動員營養需求Nutrition for Adolescent Athletes 392
青少年運動員特別關心的問題Special Dietary Concerns Among Adolescent 394
成癮物使用Substance Use 394
缺鐵性貧血Iron-Deficiency Anemia 395
高血壓Hypertension 396
高血脂症Hyperlipidemia 396
兒童與青少年的慢性健康問題Children and Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions 398
節食、異常攝食和飲食異常Dieting, Disordered Eating, and Eating Disorders 399
異常攝食和飲食異常Disordered Eating Behaviors and Eating Disorders 400

第16章  成年期營養Adult Nutrition /葉松鈴 譯 407
前言Introduction 408
營養的重要性Importance of Nutrition 408
追蹤成人的營養健康和它的結果Tracking Adult Nutritional Health and its Determinants 409
國家的健康目標Health Objectives for the Nation 409
成人不同群體間的健康差異Health Disparities Among Groups of Adults 409
成年期的生理改變Physiological Changes During the Adult Years 412
成人體組成的改變/瘦體質量和肥胖Body Composition Changes in Adults / Lean Body Mass and Adiposity 412
營養健康的連續狀態Continuum of Nutritional Health 412
營養健康的狀態States of Nutritional Health 413
對能量的建議Energy Recommendations 414
年齡相關的能量消耗改變Age-Related Changes in Energy Expenditure 414
估算成人熱量需要Estimating Energy Needs in Adults 414
體重改變的熱量調節Energy Adjustments for Weight Change 415
能量平衡Energy Balance 416
營養素建議量Nutrient Recommendations 416
巨量和微量營養素建議Macro and Micro Nutrient Recommendations 416
風險營養素Risk Nutrients 416
成人的飲食建議Dietary Recommendations for Adults 418
整體飲食目標Total Diet Approach 418
飲料的攝取建議Beverage Intake Recommendations 420
酒精飲料Alcoholic Beverages 420
水分的攝取建議Water Intake Recommendations 420
咖啡因攝取對水份需要的影響Effects of Caffeine Intake on Water Need 421
飲食補充劑和機能性食品Dietary Supplements and Functional Foods 421
飲食效能模式The Eating Competence Model 422
體能活動的建議Physical Activity Recommendations 423
體能活動的指引Guidelines for Physical Activity 423
促進體能活動Promotion of Physical Activity 423
體能活動,身體組成和代謝變化Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Metabolic Change 424
飲食與體能活動Diet and Physical Activity 424
營養介入以降低風險Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction 424
健康促進計畫的示範A Model Health-Promotion Program 425
大眾食物和營養計畫Public Food and Nutrition Programs 426
全部放在一起Putting It All Together 427

第17章  成年期營養:狀況與處置Adult Nutrition: Conditions and Interventions /蕭寧馨 譯 428
前言Introduction 429
過重與肥胖Overweight and Obesity 429
肥胖的影響Effects of Obesity 429
肥胖病源學Etiology of Obesity 430
篩檢與評估Screening and Assessment 430
體重管理療法的建議Recommendation for Weight-Management Therapy 431
營養評估Nutrition Assessment 432
體重管理的營養介入Nutrition Interventions for Weight Management 432
減重Weight Loss 432
體重管理的醫學營養療法Medical Nutrition Therapy for Weight Management 432
體重管理的認知行為療法Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management 432
體重管理與運動Physical Activity for Weight Management 434
維持體重的挑戰The Challenge of Weight Maintenance 434
減重的藥物療法Pharmacotherapy for Weight Loss 434
減重手術Bariatric Surgery 434
心血管疾病Cardiovascular Disease 435
CVD的盛行率Prevalence of CVD 436
動脈硬化的病源學Etiology of Atherosclerosis 436
動脈硬化的生理影響Physiological Effects of Atherosclerosis 437
CVD的風險因素Risk Factors for CVD 437
CVD的篩檢和評估Screening and Assessment of CVD 437
CVD的營養介入Nutrition Interventions for CVD 437
初級預防Primary Prevention 437
CVD的醫藥營養療法Medical Nutrition Therapy for CVD 439
CVD的藥物療法Pharmacotherapy for CVD 440
代謝症候群Metabolic Syndrome 440
前言Introduction 440
代謝症候群的盛行率Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome 441
代謝症候群的病源學Etiology of Metabolic Syndrome 441
代謝症候群的影響Effects of Metabolic Syndrome 441
篩檢和評估Screening and Assessment 441
代謝症候群的營養介入Nutrition Interventions for Metabolic Syndrome 441
糖尿病Diabetes Mellitus 442
糖尿病的盛行率Prevalence of Diabetes 443
糖尿病盛行率的差異Disparities in the Prevalence of Diabetes 443
糖尿病的病源學Etiology of Diabetes 443
糖尿病的生理影響Physiological Effects of Diabetes 443
預防糖尿病併發症Prevention of Diabetes Complications 443
篩檢和評估Screening and Assessment 444
營養評估Nutrition Assessment 444
糖尿病的介入Interventions for Diabetes 444
糖尿病的醫學營養療法Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes 445
美國糖尿病協會食物代換表ADA Exchange Lists 445
碳水化合物計量Carbohydrate Counting 446
自己監控血糖Self-Monitored Blood Glucose 446
運動與糖尿病管理Physical Activity in Diabetes Management 447
第2型糖尿病的藥物治療Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes 447
草藥療法及其它膳食補充品Herbal Remedies and Other Dietary Supplements 447
癌症Cancer 447
癌症的盛行率Prevalence of Cancer 447
癌症的生理和心理影響Physiological and Psychological Effects of Cancer 448
癌症病源學Etiology of Cancer 448
癌症的風險因素Risk Factors for Cancer 448
篩檢與評估Screening and Assessment 448
癌症的營養介入Nutrition Interventions for Cancer 449
替代療法與癌症治療Alternative Medicine and Cancer Treatment 449
人類免疫不足症HIV disease 450
HIV的盛行率HIV Prevalence 450
HIV的生理影響Physiological Effects of HIV 450
HIV的病源學Etiology of HIV 451
評估Assessment 451
HIV的營養介入Nutrition Interventions for HIV 451

第18章  老年期營養Nutrition and Older Adults  /林義福 譯 454
前言Introduction  455
什麼是老看誰說的算What Counts as Old Depends on Who Is Counting 455
食物很重要:營養有助於長壽和健康Food Matters: Normal Contributes to a Long and Health Life 455
高齡人口之綜覽:生命統計A Picture of the Aging Population: Vital Statistics 456
全球人口趨勢:平均餘命與壽命Global Population Trends: Life Expectancy and Life Span 456
老年人的健康目標Health Objectives for Older Adults 457
老化理論Theories of Aging 457
程式老化Programmed Aging 458
耗損理論Wear-and-Tear Theories of Aging 458
卡路里限制與長壽Calorie Restriction and Longevity 459
生理變化Physiological Changes 459
身體組成改變Body-Composition Changes 460
感官改變:味覺與嗅覺,咀嚼與吞嚥,食慾與口渴Changing Sensual Awareness: Taste and Smell, Chewing and Swallowing, Appetite and Thirst 461
營養風險因素Nutritional Risk Factors 462
老年人的飲食建議Dietary Recomm-endations for Older Adults 465
營養素建議量Nutrient Recommendations 469
能量需求的估算Estimating Energy Needs 469
老年人營養素建議:能量來源Nutrient Recommendations for Older Adults: Energy Sources 470
年齡有關的改變:營養素的考量Age-Associated Changes: Nutrients of Concern 473
營養素補充:何時、為何、何人、何物、多少?Nutrient Supplements: Why, When, Who, What, and How Much? 475
飲食補充劑,功能性食品及替代醫療Dietary Supplements, Functional Foods, and Complementary Medicine 477
營養素建議:使用食品標示Nutrient Recommendations: Using the Food Label 477
飲食建議的跨文化考量Cross-Cultural Considerations in Making Dietary Recommendations 479
食品安全之建議Food Safety Recommendations 479
身體活動量的建議Physical Activity Recommendations 480
體能活動指引Physical Activity Guidelines 480
降低風險的素營養政策與介入Nutrition Policy and Intervention for Risk Reduction 481
營養教育Nutrition Education 481
社區食品營養計畫Community Food and Nutrition Programs 482
送貨到家:在地養老支援的非政府服務Store-to-Door: A Nongovernmental Service that Supports Aging in Place 483
年長者營養計畫:促進社交活動及改進營養Senior Nutrition Program:Promoting Socialization and Improved Nutrition 483
預防的前景:促進健康The Promise of Prevention: Health Promotion 484

第19章老年期營養:狀況與處置Nutrition and Older Adults: Conditions and Interventions  /李琱 譯 486
前言:營養的重要性Introduction: The Importance of Nutrition 487
營養與健康Nutrition and Health 487
心臟病Heart Disease 488
盛行率Prevalence 488
危險因子Risk Factors 488
心血管疾病的營養療法Nutritional Remedies for Cardiovascular Diseases 489
中風Stroke 490
定義Definition 490
盛行率Prevalence 490
病因Etiology 491
中風的影響Effects of Stroke 491
危險因子Risk Factors 491
營養療法Nutritional Remedies 491
高血壓Hypertension 492
定義Definition 492
盛行率Prevalence 492
病因Etiology 492
高血壓的影響Effects of Hypertension 492
危險因子Risk Factors 492
營養治療Nutritional Remedies 492
糖尿病:對老年人的特別考量Diabetes: Special Concern for Older Adults 494
糖尿病的影響Effects of Diabetes 494
營養調理Nutritional Interventions 494
肥胖症Obesity 495
定義Definition 495
盛行率Prevalence 496
肥胖的病因、影響及危險因子Etiology, Effects and Risk Factors of Obesity 496
營養療法Nutritional Remedies 497
骨質疏鬆症Osteoporosis 498
定義Definition 498
盛行率Prevalence 498
病因Etiology 498
骨質疏鬆症的影響Effects of Osteoporosis 499
營養療法Nutritional Remedies 500
其他影響營養性治療的因子Other Issues Impacting Nutritional Remedies 501
口腔健康Oral Health 501
胃腸道疾病Gastrointestinal Disease 502
胃食道逆流症Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, GERD 502
胃狀態影響營養素可利用性:維生素B12吸收不良Stomach Conditions Affect Nutrient Availability: Vitamin B12 Malabsorption 503
便秘Constipation 504
發炎性疾病:骨關節炎Inflammatory Disease: Osteoarthritis 506
定義與盛行率Definition and Prevalence 506
病因Etiology 507
骨關節炎的影響Effects of Osteoarthritis 507
危險因子Risk Factors 508
營養性療法Nutritional Remedies 508
認知障礙,癡呆以及阿茲海默症Cognitive Impairment, Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease 508
定義Definition 508
盛行率Prevalence 509
認知障礙的病因Etiology of Cognitive Impairment 509
認知障礙的影響Effects of Cognitive Impairment 510
認知障礙的營養調理Nutrition Interventions for Cognitive Impairment 510
多藥療法:處方類及非處方類藥品Polypharmacy: Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications 510
體重不足/無意識的體重下降Low Body Weight/Unintentional Weight Loss 512
定義Definition 512
病因及影響Etiology and Effects 513
營養調理Nutrition Interventions 514
脫水Dehydration 514
定義Definition 514
病因Etiology 515
脫水的影響Effects of Dehydration 515
營養調理Nutritional Interventions 515
緩慢補水Rehydrate Slowly 516
生命終點的脫水現象Dehydration at End of Life 516
喪親之痛Bereavement 516
補遺Addendum 516

複習問題解答Answers to Review Questions AR-1
附錄A
運動對老年人健康的影響之研究摘要Summary of Research of Effects of Exercise Activities on Health of Older Adults A-1
附錄B
度量縮寫與單位換算Measurement Abbreviations and Equivalents A-3
附錄C
身體質量指數 (BMI) 表Body Mass Index (BMI) A-5
附錄D
案例研究問題解答Case Study Questions Answers A-7

參考資料References R-1
詞彙Glossary G-1
索引Index I-1

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